GUI development in Java

GUI (Graphical User Interface) development in Java can be done using various libraries and frameworks, such as Swing, SWT, and JavaFX. In recent years, JavaFX has become the preferred choice for developing modern and responsive GUI applications.

JavaFX is a set of Java libraries for creating rich graphical user interfaces and is part of the Java Development Kit (JDK) starting from JDK 8. It provides a robust set of UI controls and layouts, styling and theming capabilities, animation and multimedia support, and a scene graph for organizing the UI components.

Here is an example of a simple JavaFX application that displays a window with a label and a button:

import javafx.application.Application;
import javafx.scene.Scene;
import javafx.scene.control.Button;
import javafx.scene.control.Label;
import javafx.scene.layout.VBox;
import javafx.stage.Stage;

public class HelloWorld extends Application {
    public void start(Stage primaryStage) {
        Label label = new Label("Hello, World!");
        Button button = new Button("Click me!");
        button.setOnAction(event -> label.setText("Button clicked!"));

        VBox root = new VBox();
        root.getChildren().addAll(label, button);

        Scene scene = new Scene(root, 300, 200);

        primaryStage.setTitle("Hello World!");

    public static void main(String[] args) {

In this example, we create a new JavaFX application by extending the javafx.application.Application class and overriding the start() method. We create a Label and a Button control, add them to a VBox layout container, and set the container as the root node of the scene. We set the scene dimensions and the window title, and show the window by calling

When the button is clicked, we change the text of the label using a lambda expression attached to the button’s setOnAction() event handler.

JavaFX provides many more UI controls, such as text fields, radio buttons, checkboxes, tables, and lists, as well as more complex layouts and styling options. It also supports various input and output formats, including images, video, and audio.

In summary, JavaFX provides a rich set of UI components and tools for building modern and responsive GUI applications in Java. With its scene graph, styling, theming, and animation support, JavaFX can be a powerful tool for creating visually appealing and interactive applications.

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